Matplotlib Fill Style

The whitespace is chosen to form lines of at most linelen characters, if possible. Notice: Undefined index: HTTP_REFERER in /home/forge/theedmon. Matplotlib is a plotting package that makes it simple to create plots from various data structures in Python, including lists. What is live graph. Examples of different types of lines and markers available in matplotlib. # Draw 5 points for each line text_style = dict. The Axes instance the artist resides in, or None. cohere(ax, *args, **kwargs) Add a coherence plot to the input matplotlib. by Christoph Gohlke, Laboratory for Fluorescence Dynamics, University of California, Irvine. One good use of this would be when we have some factor (say bacterial Phyla) that vary in proportions in different samples (say, sequences collected from different sites along the colon). How to make line and scatter plots in matplotlib. With Matplotlib, we have styles which serve a very similar purpose to Matplotlib graphs as CSS (cascading style sheet) pages serve for HTML. Distribution plot options import numpy as np import seaborn as sns import matplotlib. To make this process easy, Matplotlib allows us to add the different elements in a layered fashion - one layer on top of another. In Matplotlib, symbols are referred to as markers , and as with the line styles there is not always a one-to-one correspondance with ChIPS. They are extracted from open source Python projects. Artist A line - the line can have both a solid linestyle connecting all the vertices, and a marker at each vertex. figure() fig. Notice: Undefined index: HTTP_REFERER in /home/forge/theedmon. matplotlib can be used in python scripts, the python and ipython shell, web application servers, and six graphical user interface toolkits. For some reason, Matlab doesn't like when I concatenate the plots. , one can create "stepped" lines in various styles. for y, fill_style in. xkcd() function enables some rcParam settings which can automatically convert any matplotlib plot into XKCD style. Matplotlib provides a low-level plotting API, with a MATLAB style interface and output theme. Now that you've seen how to build a histogram in Python from the ground up, let's see how other Python packages can do the job for you. Here, we are filling between the current price, and the original price, where the current price is above the original. Bokeh visualization library, documentation site. pyplot as plt from fill styles. The output of tikzplotlib is in PGFPlots , a LaTeX library that sits on top of PGF/TikZ and describes graphs in terms of axes, data etc. Matplotlib ggplot colors. % matplotlib inline # this line is required for the plots to appear in the Jupyter cells, rather than launching the matplotlib GUI import matplotlib import numpy as np import matplotlib. What is annonation , how to use that in matplotlib. I am making a scatter plot in matplotlib and need to change the background of the actual plot to black. Just watch out for one ideological difference: Matplotlib tries, above all, to be as precise as possible. Data points beyond the whiskers are displayed using +. pyplot as plt # Input data; groupwise green_data =. 2 matplottheme. See set_linestyle() for a decription of the line styles, set_marker() for a description of the markers, and set_drawstyle() for a description of the draw styles. John passed away tragically young at age 44, in 2012, and matplotlib is now a full-fledged community effort, developed and maintained by a host of others. Create a new Python script called normal_curve. To do this, we use the animation functionality with Matplotlib. backend_pdf. title to the stock var. In order to style the visual attributes of Bokeh plots, you first must know what the available properties are. Customization using own style. You can peruse the matplotlib xkcd gallery here for inspiration, or read on where I'll show off some of my favorite of the possibilities. If you want to fill the area under the line you will get an area chart. use('seaborn-paper') renders the default seaborn. Well, sort of. vmin, vmax: [ None | scalar ] If not None, either or both of these values will be supplied to the matplotlib. size = 256, 16. To plot all circles with the same color, specify c as a color name or an RGB triplet. A matplotlib. If this property is not set, the value of the color property is used. In most cases these tools can be used without pandas but I think the combination of pandas + visualization tools is so common, it is the best place to start. import matplotlib. IPython has a built-in mode to work cleanly with matplotlib figures. As well a being the best Python package for drawing plots, Matplotlib also has impressive primitive drawing capablities. The Axes instance the artist resides in, or None. class matplotlib. Plotly Matplotlib Library. x default values is a single line of python. Line2D) for the arrow that connects annotation to the point. Also, how can I make the median plot bold? Thanks. This module contains functions to handle markers. kdeplot (data, data2=None, cbar_ax: matplotlib axes, optional. This utility wrapper makes it convenient to create common layouts of subplots, including the enclosing figure object, in a single call. Figure(figsize=None, dpi=None, facecolor=None, edgecolor=None, linewidth=0. By default, all the lines are drawn with a solid line. Here, we are filling between the current price, and the original price, where the current price is above the original. It was developed by John Hunter in 2002. How to make line and scatter plots in matplotlib. The matplotlib library comes with several built in styles. GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets. Grouped Bar Plot with Pattern Fill using Python and Matplotlib. Posted on March 27, 2013. In this Matplotlib tutorial, we're going to be talking about styles. Python Matplotlib Tutorial, what is Matplotlib in Python, Python Plot List, Pyplot, Categorical Variables of Python Plotting, Python Matplotlib example. With the recent updates to matplotlib fill_between and hatch (see links here), hatch filled regions are no longer behaving as they did previously. It seems to me that the missing values are denoted by. circle() - a circle with given radius; ellipse() - an ellipse with given radii and angle. # Patches are graphical objects that fill 2D space, like polygons or. # Make fill a property so as to preserve the def _register_style (style_list. import time from matplotlib. import pandas as pd import matplotlib. So, I got this Text widget, and I'd like for it to expand and fill its entire parent, using the Grid Geometry Manager. The output of tikzplotlib is in PGFPlots , a LaTeX library that sits on top of PGF/TikZ and describes graphs in terms of axes, data etc. What is live graph. 10 Jul 2019 as pd import holoviews as hv from holoviews import opts from bokeh. The legend() method adds the legend to the plot. For a tutorial of its usage see Writing mathematical expressions. In most cases these tools can be used without pandas but I think the combination of pandas + visualization tools is so common, it is the best place to start. Bases: matplotlib. This python Box plot tutorial also includes the steps to create Horizontal Box plot, Vertical Box plot and box plot with notch. Here is the code that has generated the graphics. Matplotlib basics. I think the possibilities here are pretty limitless: this is going to be a hugely useful and popular feature in matplotlib, especially when the sketch artist PR is mature and part of the main package. Additional examples are bundled with Flot. /country-gdp-2014. Come to think of it, I think the inheritance of draw and fill attributes that happen along the path would take advantage of traitlets if you guys decide to go that route. Matplotlib provides a range of methods for describing and annotating a plot. They are extracted from open source Python projects. Handling text in Matplotlib. Return the marker fill style. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. matplotlib can be used in python scripts, the python and ipython shell, web application servers, and six graphical user interface toolkits. Matplotlib is a python library for making publication quality plots using a syntax familiar to MATLAB users. I found Matplotlib awkward, particularly in contrast to ggplot, and was relieved to move beyond the confusing web of objects inheriting attributes from each other. Keyword arguments: Annotate the x, y point xy with text s at x, y location xytext. The line style symbols are listed in the following table, and they can appear in any order. pyplot as plt import os from. """ Module for plotting data on maps with matplotlib. This mechanism can also be used to (truly. Style tweaks for matplotlib. Matplotlib ggplot colors. Matplotlib uses numpy for numerics. But, because matplotlib is so well-established in the Python world, it would be nice to be able to continue using it even in the age of browser-based visualization. While it is impossible to select the best default for all cases, these are designed to work well in the most common cases. More precisely, fill between x[i] and x[i+1] if where[i] and where[i+1]. vmin, vmax: [ None | scalar ] If not None, either or both of these values will be supplied to the matplotlib. " This is the type of curve we are going to plot with Matplotlib. import numpy as np import matplotlib. class matplotlib. 5 and up, matplotlib offers a range of pre-configured plotting styles. Loading Unsubscribe from Fluidic Colours? Cancel Unsubscribe. The Axes instance the artist resides in, or None. /country-gdp-2014. It is quite easy to do that in basic python plotting using matplotlib library. Visualizing Histograms with Matplotlib and Pandas. fill() seems to fill only the area between the x-axis and one curve - at least I found no way for filling only the area between two graphs. In this Matplotlib tutorial, we're going to be going over custom legends. The most important function for working with discrete color palettes is color_palette(). 4 Fill Between and Alpha matplotlib. How to plot different style of faults using matplotlib? I managed to get the correct colormap applied to the polygon fill but there are tiny slivers between the. matplotlib is designed with the philosophy that you should be able to create simple plots with just a few commands, or just one! If you want to see a histogram of your data, you shouldn’t need to instantiate. This script demonstrates the different available style sheets on a common set of example plots: scatter plot, image, bar graph, patches, line plot and histogram,. With Matplotlib, we have styles which serve a very similar purpose to Matplotlib graphs as CSS (cascading style sheet) pages serve for HTML. pyplot If `mode` is set to ``"expand"`` the legend will be horizontally expanded to fill the axes area (or `bbox_to. The mathtext module provides TeX style mathematical expressions using FreeType and the DejaVu, BaKoMa computer modern, or STIX fonts. #199 Matplotlib style sheets. three-dimensional plots are enabled by importing the mplot3d toolkit. Often the data you need to stack is oriented in columns, while the default Pandas bar plotting function requires the data to be oriented in rows with a unique column for each layer. We've covered the basics of adding a legend already. Matplotlib - bar,scatter and histogram plots from mpl_toolkits. The Canvas widget provides structured graphics facilities for Tkinter. This can come in handy to highlight certain regions of a curve. fill_betweenは3つの変数を取ります。 x: x軸の範囲指定 y1,y2: この2つの間を塗りつぶすあとはオプションでfacecolorは色、alphaは透過度なんかを指定できます。 import numpy as np import matplotlib. The following are all floats: 1. Now that you’ve seen how to build a histogram in Python from the ground up, let’s see how other Python packages can do the job for you. 4 Fill Between and Alpha matplotlib. You can peruse the matplotlib xkcd gallery here for inspiration, or read on where I'll show off some of my favorite of the possibilities. This post aims to describe a few color palette that are provided, and thus make your life easier when plotting several color. Thus we did not get the internal design right on the first try. get_antialiased ¶ Returns True if the Patch is to be drawn with antialiasing. Create a new Python script called normal_curve. October 29, 2015 CONTENTS. Style line plots in Python using the Matplotlib library to create markers on points, a grid, a goal line and label the goal line. Matplotlib can convert this numeric representation of histogram into a graph. xtick and ytick properties. Toy weather data¶. , creates a figure, creates a plotting area in a figure, plots some lines in a plotting area, decorates the plot with labels, etc. Luckily, most of my plots don't need color, and I would. Not every toolbox has a great equivalence in Python, just like not every Python package has a decent counterpart in Matlab, but when it comes to plotting, there is no discussion. Also, how can I make the median plot bold? Thanks. The Tkinter module (“Tk interface”) is the standard Python interface to the Tk GUI toolkit. They are extracted from open source Python projects. Matplotlib provides the functionality to visualize Python histograms out of the box with a versatile wrapper around NumPy’s histogram():. Customization using own style. To set a line style assign it to the named argument linestyle in the call to pyplot. In the examples, I will use pandas to manipulate the data and use it to drive the visualization. use(my_plot_style) before creating your plot. Matplotlib has native support for legends. Collection verts is a sequence of ( verts0 , verts1 , ) where verts_i is a sequence of xy tuples of vertices, or an equivalent numpy array of shape ( nv , 2). The most important function for working with discrete color palettes is color_palette(). While providing flexibility, the low-level API can lead to verbose visualisation code, and the end results tend to be aesthetically lacking in the. Marker edge color¶ Demo the marker edge color of matplotlib's markers. To scale the plot, use the plotting_context() and set_context() functions. The row0_col2 is the identifier for that particular cell. ) One relevant feature of MATLAB is its global style. (John gave a talk about the evolution of matplotlib at the 2012 SciPy conference, which is worth a watch. Matplotlib graphics are built step by step by adding new elements. The key is in the "hatch=" parameter, in this case it is '/' to add diagonal lines. Line2D) for the arrow that connects annotation to the point. By default, Matplotlib places the legend at the top-right corner of the plot. I'd like to be sure I have everything under control. vmin, vmax: [ None | scalar ] If not None, either or both of these values will be supplied to the matplotlib. Grouped Bar Plot with Pattern Fill using Python and Matplotlib. Matplotlib is a plotting package that makes it simple to create plots from various data structures in Python, including lists. In this book, we will cover the different types of figures and how to adjust a figure to suit your needs. subplots # Plot all fill styles. Below is a sampling of the many TeX expressions now supported by Matplotlib’s internal mathtext engine. They are extracted from open source Python projects. Artist A line - the line can have both a solid linestyle connecting all the vertices, and a marker at each vertex. The first change we're going to make here is changing plt. matplotlib2tikz. It might be nice to start a list of functional requirements that a style system should meet. Python source code: plot_matplotlib_hist. The main issue with legends is typically that the legend gets in the way of data. The matplotlib_helpers. Includes comparison with ggplot2 for R. 5 and up, matplotlib offers a range of pre-configured plotting styles. I recently spent a frustrating amount of time figuring out a good way to have labels and text in the Helvetica font in Matplotlib. Plot multiple lines in one chart with different style Python matplotlib November 24, 2017 February 27, 2019 rischan 1 Comment Sometimes we need to plot multiple lines in one chart using different styles such as dot, line, dash, or maybe with different colour too. Tagged with: python,, matplotlib,, animation,, and drawing. It is considered good style to supply the module name with each method call to alert the reader to the module the method belongs. animation as animation from matplotlib import style. subplots # Plot all fill styles. If using a Jupyter notebook, include the line %matplotlib inline. What is live graph. (This is an extension of our previous email discussion and involved me going and using matlab for a bit to get a feel for their API. fill_between plt. I can set the axes background in my style, but I can't seem to find a way to do it for the legend. Box plot in Python with matplotlib In this Tutorial we will learn how to create Box plot in python using matplotlib with an example. py = True ### PATCHES # Patches are graphical objects that fill. To borrow and adapt Peter's example above. So launched it and went straight to the new style package. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. Note the trailing zero is not required, although it is good style. Line Charts in matplotlib How to make a plot in matplotlib. Johansson’s IPython notebook lectures available at the refer-. saturation : float, optional Proportion of the original saturation to draw colors at. Skip to content. In most cases these tools can be used without pandas but I think the combination of pandas + visualization tools is so common, it is the best place to start. Filled Area Plots in matplotlib How to make a filled area plot in matplotlib. by Brandon Rhodes • Home Animating Ptolemy’s Equant with Python, SVG, and CSS¶. pyplot as plt from fill styles. Reference for marker fill-styles included with Matplotlib. sparklines with matplotlib python trend line. Box plot in Python with matplotlib In this Tutorial we will learn how to create Box plot in python using matplotlib with an example. Style tweaks for matplotlib. To this end, some of the matplotlib core devs have been working on a WebGL viewer for matplotlib. submodule and you will see them used in other Python libraries too sometimes. mathtext) accent() (matplotlib. animation as animation This import brings in the animation functionality for Matplotlib. To do this, we use the animation functionality with Matplotlib. Matplotlib ggplot colors. Weka, Solidity, Org. mathtext module for additional details. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. Marker edge color¶ Demo the marker edge color of matplotlib's markers. Data points beyond the whiskers are displayed using +. pyplot as plt from matplotlib. Matplotlib - bar,scatter and histogram plots from mpl_toolkits. Internally, pyqtgraph uses the same system but also allows many shorthand methods of specifying the same style options. subplots # Plot all fill styles. The %matplotlib inline is a jupyter notebook specific command that let's you see the plots in the notbook itself. Setting the style is as easy as calling matplotlib. animation as animation. It is the core object that contains the methods to create all sorts of charts and features in a plot. how to place Text within box and use case with hands on. In this Matplotlib tutorial, we're going to be going over custom legends. Additionally, new style formatting allows all of the components of the format to be specified dynamically using parametrization. use('ggplot'). 本文总结了50个图表绘制方法,对于数据分析的可视化有莫大的作用。 Tips: 本文原文部分代码有不准确的地方,已进行修改. > > I could set mfc (marker face color) to white and > mec (marker edge color) to the color of my line, but > what if I don't know the color (because it is generated > through the mpl color cycler)? > > Thanks. Style line plots in Python using the Matplotlib library to create markers on points, a grid, a goal line and label the goal line. How to update graph real time from live data. drawmapboundary(color=’k’, linewidth=1. set(style="whitegrid", palette="pastel", color_codes=True) sns. use('agg') import matplotlib. In black are matplotlib markers that are able to rotate. It's possible to change these settings by specifying the font and text properties: the common aspects to define are the font type, weight, style, size and colour. We will also need the matplotlib. The lower left corner of the figure maps to (0,0) and the upper right corner maps to (1,1). Setting to True will use default dash codes, or you can pass a list of dash codes or a dictionary mapping levels of the style variable to dash codes. Matplotlib has native support for legends. For line patterns, it can be helpful when preparing figures for black-and-white prints. colormaps()¶ Matplotlib provides a number of colormaps, and others can be added using register_cmap(). pyplot as plt import numpy as np fig = plt. Matplotlib uses default settings, which help to create publication quality plots with a minimal amount of settings and tweaking. pyplot as plt Notice the use of the "as" clause that allows you to supply plt as a shorten form of matplotlib. Python Matplotlib Tutorial, what is Matplotlib in Python, Python Plot List, Pyplot, Categorical Variables of Python Plotting, Python Matplotlib example. However, it is sometimes preferable to manually set this range, to get a better view of the data's extrema. It is considered good style to supply the module name with each method call to alert the reader to the module the method belongs. pyplot as plt from matplotlib. Both sides of the True position remain unfilled due to the adjacent False values. How to update graph real time from live data. Line and Scatter Plots in matplotlib How to make line and scatter plots in matplotlib. Normalize instance for scaling data values to colors. use('seaborn-paper') renders the default seaborn. Matplotlib - bar,scatter and histogram plots from mpl_toolkits. Adding grid lines to a matplotlib chart. To set a line style assign it to the named argument linestyle in the call to pyplot. Matplotlib graphics are built step by step by adding new elements. This is the module that will allow us to animate the figure after it has been shown. Notice that regardless of the specified line style, Matplotlib insists on making negative contours dashed as long as a single color is specified! A solution is to fool Matplotlib into thinking multiple colors are being requested, by, for instance, specifying colors=('r','r') the the call to contour. Examples of grouped, stacked, overlaid, and colored bar charts. The plt() function of pyplot submodule takes the array containing the data and bin array as parameters and converts into a histogram. This python Scatter plot tutorial also includes the steps to create scatter plot by groups in which scatter plot is created for different groups. > > I could set mfc (marker face color) to white and > mec (marker edge color) to the color of my line, but > what if I don't know the color (because it is generated > through the mpl color cycler)? > > Thanks. Changes to the default style¶ The most important changes in matplotlib 2. The output of tikzplotlib is in PGFPlots , a LaTeX library that sits on top of PGF/TikZ and describes graphs in terms of axes, data etc. This time, we will directly use a colormap object rather than letting a rendering function use it automatically. png file mpl. Matplotlib provides the functionality to visualize Python histograms out of the box with a versatile wrapper around NumPy's histogram():. Here is an example of how to easily manipulate a toy weather dataset using xarray and other recommended Python libraries:. Import the libraries and specify the type of the output file. It provides a high-level interface for drawing attractive and informative statistical graphics. Last week got some free time. Matplotlib is a multiplatform data visualization library built on NumPy arrays, and designed to work with the broader SciPy stack. xkcd() function enables some rcParam settings which can automatically convert any matplotlib plot into XKCD style. This python Scatter plot tutorial also includes the steps to create scatter plot by groups in which scatter plot is created for different groups. Both sides of the True position remain unfilled due to the adjacent False values. 5 and up, matplotlib offers a range of pre-configured plotting styles. is there a way to draw the following state diagram in matplotlib? Or instead to embed inside a matplotlib figure LaTeX code that draws these diagrams using a package like tikz? ideally I would like to annotate the edges and the nodes with LaTeX symbols/math so a solution that embeds LaTeX into a matplotlib figure would be the best. ) One relevant feature of MATLAB is its global style. Say, we fill the area under the curve with a color and then pile another element on top of the same plot. arrowprops, if not None, is a dictionary of line properties (see matplotlib. Json, AWS QuickSight, JSON. """ from __future__ import print_function import matplotlib. Visit the installation page to see how you can download the package. Submodule imports have the form import module. Keyword arguments: Annotate the x, y point xy with text s at x, y location xytext. Matplotlib Matplotlib¶ Matplotlib is a Python 2D plotting module which produces publication quality figures in a variety of formats (jpg, png, etc). Tuck Ngun provides an in-depth look at creating data visualizations in matplotlib. I used to hate Matplotlib. (John gave a talk about the evolution of matplotlib at the 2012 SciPy conference, which is worth a watch. a title), as well as annotating anywhere on the figure. Mon 11 March 2013. pyplot as plt Notice the use of the "as" clause that allows you to supply plt as a shorten form of matplotlib. py = True ### PATCHES # Patches are graphical objects that fill. /country-gdp-2014. lines import Line2D fig, ax = plt. Plot multiple lines in one chart with different style Python matplotlib November 24, 2017 February 27, 2019 rischan 1 Comment Sometimes we need to plot multiple lines in one chart using different styles such as dot, line, dash, or maybe with different colour too. customization for ticker. Plotly Matplotlib Library. Setting to False will use solid lines for all subsets. This python Box plot tutorial also includes the steps to create Horizontal Box plot, Vertical Box plot and box plot with notch. Here is an example of how to easily manipulate a toy weather dataset using xarray and other recommended Python libraries:. show Controlling style of text and labels using a dictionary. View code from AA 1import numpy import scipy import sklearn import numpy as np import pandas as pd from datetime import datetime, timedelta import matplotlib. Package overview; 10 Minutes to pandas; Essential Basic Functionality; Intro to Data Structures. (If xytext = None, defaults to xy, and if textcoords = None, defaults to xycoords). Should be something that can be interpreted by color_palette(), or a dictionary mapping hue levels to matplotlib colors. While doing all this I figured out how to use Gaussian Kernel Density Estimation to make my histograms smooth. pyplot as plt. Sign in Sign up. There are 3 types of color palettes: Sequential, Discrete and Diverging. subplots¶ matplotlib. fill_betweenは3つの変数を取ります。 x: x軸の範囲指定 y1,y2: この2つの間を塗りつぶすあとはオプションでfacecolorは色、alphaは透過度なんかを指定できます。 import numpy as np import matplotlib. If you are a user trying to build a very simple viewer using Matplotlib, you may want to check out Writing a simple custom data viewer - the present tutorial is intended for people who wish to write and distribute a viewer using Matplotlib with full control over layout and behavior. The Axes instance the artist resides in, or None. All possible markers are defined here:. Tuck Ngun provides an in-depth look at creating data visualizations in matplotlib. For example, 'Direction','reverse' reverses the color scale. The first change we're going to make here is changing plt. pyplot as plt from matplotlib. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: