How To Open Sqlite File In Python

open (not sqlite3. Entire database is a single disk file that can be placed anywhere in operating system's file system. Case in point, what happens if the file SQLite_Test. SQLite3 | How to Connect to SQLite From Command Line. Just follow the steps given below. I never seemed to find the perfect data-oriented Python book for my course, so I set out to write just such a book. In our eyes, SQLite is just a file, same as other files. While we can query the entire table, we can instead. SQLite also has a list of Well-Known Users of SQLite. In this article we'll demonstrate loading data from an SQLite database table into a Python Pandas Data Frame. We help you open your file. db files in VSCode? Why would a. Consider this piece of code:. How can I open a FILE file?. Hi Miguel, This was a great blog post and I especially like setting up the database migration steps from the beginning of a project. For existing database files, the file mode determines whether the database connection is read-only and sets the IsReadOnly property. The file mode determines whether you connect to an existing SQLite database file or create a new one. SQLite3 comes as a part of the Python 3 standard library. This file is encrypted using SQLCipher, an open source extension for SQLite database that provides transparent 256-bit AES encryption of database files. Scripting Microsoft SQL Server with Python. How do you check if a sqlite database is open?. Aes Image Encryption Python. The pysqlite database driver is also included with the standard library so that no further external dependencies are required to access a SQLite database from within Python applications. Data is either in memory, files or databases. Use of SQLite_3 as an application file format is increasing. SQLite transactions are ACID (Atomic, Consistent, Isolated, and Durable). What this demonstration will do is produce a small window and open (if it doesn't already exist) a file called Grid_SQLite_demo_db. Setting the cache parameter to "private" is equivalent to setting the SQLITE_OPEN_PRIVATECACHE bit. General Google Chrome configurations can be found in specific JSON files. Click MacOS Applications —> SQLite Studio app icon to open it. db" to be opened and used. If you're not sure which to choose, learn more about installing packages. We want to compile our GUI code into Python code. sqlite Replace database. If the file is already there it will overwrite that file. Python sqlite3 module APIs. connectdatabase[,timeout,otheroptionalarguments] This API opens a connection to the SQLite database file database. mode column sqlite>. 'C:\\django\\sqlite\\django. Usually, a cursor in SQL and databases is a control structure to traverse over the records in a database. The button(s) in the Python-tab start the macros that trigger the Python-code. We will use the text file, "webdictionary. SQLite Download, Installation and Getting started : SQLite does not have a separate server process like most other SQL databases. "The solutions and answers provided on Experts Exchange have been extremely helpful to me over the last few years. Let us explain how it works. WARNING: Never unpickle data received from an untrusted source as this may pose some serious security risks. py Monica 15 Monica 15 In this part of the Python tutorial, we work with files and standard input and output in Python. It is possible to change the location of the Firefox profile folder but you should read this article for instructions. SQLite is a single file relational database bundled with most standard Python installs. There was only one problem. The APSW is designed to mimic the native SQLite C, therefore, whatever you can do in SQLite C API, you can do it also from Python. sqlite3 in the current directory. dll from the zip into your JRE's bin directory. SQLite - Python 安装 SQLite3 可使用 sqlite3 模块与 Python 进行集成。sqlite3 模块是由 Gerhard Haring 编写的。它提供了一个与 PEP 249 描述的 DB-API 2. IPython is open source (BSD license), and is used by a range of other projects; add your project to that list if it uses IPython as a library, and please don’t forget to cite the project. Let's insert a new project into the projects table and some tasks into the tasks table that we created in the creating tables from a Python program tutorial. Python SQLite Tutorial. The Python code to extract the data from a spreadsheet and insert it into the SQLite database is included below. OperationalError: database is locked [on hold] unable to open database file. y_serial - warehouse compressed Python objects with SQLite. The implementation of SQLite is pure ANSI-C, but many of the C-language source code files are either generated or transformed by auxiliary C programs and AWK, SED, and TCL scripts prior to being incorporated into the finished SQLite library. So n can be replaced by any positive integer value. The source code for SQLite is in the public domain. Finally when I hit CTRL-C to terminate the process, it spits out a mammoth chunk of MySQL commands in the command prompt, and the. Our API accepts a single *. Also, when you see in the above code see one database named mydatabase. If this database file does not exist yet it will be created automatically. In the previous chapter, we had the following output when we used the sqlite shell command line: $ sqlite3 test. The sqlite. So let’s start to implement it. Check if the first two symbols in the file are MZ and the rest are binary symbols. Saving tracebacks to a log file can make it easier to debug. Browse and publish that SQLite database with Datasette. Database transactions. Subversion is intended to be a compelling replacement for CVS. For the full. For URI format, the "file:" prefix is required. So it is easy to use it in a software or a website, with a language that you can use to make request to your database (stored in a file). •Open source database server (from Oracle) •Full featured •Runs as a separate SQLite and Python •SQLite is a simple file-based storage library. python open() 函数用于打开一个文件,创建一个 file 对象,相关的方法才可以调用它进行读写。. Python File write() 方法 Python File(文件) 方法 概述 write() 方法用于向文件中写入指定字符串。 在文件关闭前或缓冲区刷新前,字符串内容存储在缓冲区中,这时你在文件中是看不到写入的内容的。. Open Visual Studio and create a C# Console Application. • The data base is in only one file, in contrast to dBASE which creates a file per table, making it easy to exchange databases between various users. sqlite_version gives us the version of the SQLite database library. You can provide multiple CSV files:. The following are code examples for showing how to use sqlite3. How to open any document e. This article focus on SQLite. Raspberry Piと水分センサで植物の水分を計測し、計測したデータをデータベースに登録します。そして、植物の水分量の変化をグラフ化し、ブラウザからいつでも植物の状態が確認できます。フロントエンドの技術は一切不要. sql file, and the database server will recreate the database as described in the. But, let us start with the simple stuff and work on from there. Now this goes on for like 2-3 hours, without command prompt returning. As mentioned at the end of my previous tutorial, Beginners Guide to SQLite, SQLite databases are most powerful when used along R and Python. However, for the sake of variety, I will show how to use the command line tool, which I also tend to prefer at times. It stores tabular data such as spreadsheet or database in plain text and has a common format for data interchange. OperationalError: database is locked [on hold] unable to open database file. Work with ZIP archives. When you connect to an SQLite database file that does not exist, SQLite creates a new database for you. SQL files?" How would you use these ". Create, edit, visualise, analyse and publish geospatial information on Windows, Mac, Linux, BSD (Android coming soon) For your desktop, server, in your web browser and as developer libraries. The Python code to extract the data from a spreadsheet and insert it into the SQLite database is included below. When you want to do one or very few operations on a text file, you can just open it in a text editor and make the changes you want. Otherwise, Python will create a file with the given name. Simply create a new file and put the following content in it. The real world uses of Pickling and Unpickling are widespread as they allow you to easily send data from one server to another, and store it in a file or database. Csv Import and export Excel. From the Django says "Unable to Open Database File" when using SQLite3 section of the Newbie mistakes Django wiki page: make sure Apache can also write to the parent directory of the database; make sure none of the folders of the database file's full path starts with a number; make sure the full path the db directory does exist. You can explore more by checking every sqlite3 command in the python prompt. c file available in DBD-SQLite installation and find out sqlite3_prepare() function and change its third argument to -1 instead of 0. SQLITEDB or *. The sqlite file extension is used for database files in SQLite file format. The Python Discord. Learn2Crack shows you a easy way to pull SQLite database from a Android Device and edit it in your PC. txt", during the lessons:. txt with content like this Accidents at Home Adoption Advertising Advice Age: Youth & Old Age Airplanes Amusement Parks I have a table of 'subject' in db. This tool is a Database browser for SQLite. The APSW is designed to mimic the native SQLite C, therefore, whatever you can do in SQLite C API, you can do it also from Python. OperationalError(). RSQLite: 'SQLite' Interface for R. The Application file Format of SQLite is used in these. But before we begin, here is a template that you can use to create a database in Python using sqlite3: import sqlite3 sqlite3. Sqlite to Python Panda Dataframe An SQL query result can directly be stored in a panda dataframe:. SQLite is an open source database and is serverless that needs no configuration. Double-click Startup On Windows. Python has bindings for many database systems including MySQL, Postregsql, Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server and Maria DB. py) can be used to create xml files. datetime handling. Executing a Python program can be done in two ways: calling the Python interpreter with a shebang line, and using the interactive Python shell. From the menu bar in Access, go to; File - Export. This is a Python programming tutorial for the SQLite database. SQLite allows us to quickly get up and running with databases, without. ) pyuic form1. embedded) and very compact SQL engine. SQLite date storage and conversion. db' Make sure there is no special charcaters in the path like "éè" or "(". If the test. By using the sqlite3 tool, you can use the SQL statements and dot-commands to interact with the SQLite database. SQLite is built into Python but is only built for access by a single connection at a time. SQLite is a software library that implements a self-contained, serverless, zero-configuration, transactional SQL database engine. Hey Guys I am one day old in my quest to learn DJango on ubuntu. When you want to do one or very few operations on a text file, you can just open it in a text editor and make the changes you want. python my_database. C# is a general-purpose, object-oriented programming language. connect(db_name) However what I have is a lot of database files made with tsk_loaddb, when I am in sqlite3 I can use the following. Android uses the SQLite database to store and retrieve data persistently. Now create a Python script read_excel. The tutorial was superseded with the Python SQLite tutorial. This Python 3 tutorial covers how to read CSV data in from a file and then use it in Python. In this installment of the Database Clinic series—in which experts and their databases of choice are pitted against a series of the same challenges— Mark Niemann-Ross demonstrates how to leverage SQLite to solve common database problems. It helps Windows select the right program to open the file. We help you open your file. In this tutorial, we will work with SQLite3 database programmatically using Python. API & Description 1 sqlite3. Using adapters to store additional Python types in SQLite databases¶ As described before, SQLite supports only a limited set of types natively. Which can be generated if: the database file name is wrong due, for example, to the case: linux is case sensitive, Mac OS no (at least not by default) the database file or the parent directory is read-only, so you have to change the permissions the table does not exists. SQLite is an open source relational database included with the Python standard library as of Python 2. For this, we use the csv module. Next, create a Cursor object using the cursor method of the Connection object. connect) because I store data to the database using CopyLayer (a method of ogr. sqlite file in there. If you are using Windows and this message appears intermittently make sure that your security software (Anti-malware) are not opening (and locking) your database file to check for malware presence. SQLite Python tutorial. If you want to use sqlite3 outside of a python script, in Ubuntu, you have to install the package. Also, when you see in the above code see one database named mydatabase. You you can use the MySQL for Python package: [code] #!/usr/bin/python # -*- coding: utf-8 -*- # Download it at http://sourceforge. The SQLite project's website describes it as a "serverless" database. If you delete, rename or move the profile folder, Firefox may report that it is "already running, but is not responding" when you next start the application. sample section from a SOFT file and store ID_REF and value in a SQLite DB. Notice: Undefined index: HTTP_REFERER in /home/forge/theedmon. # Open Database Comments such as this one are at best unnecessary and at worst harmful: the comment provides no additional information compared to the code, and at worst they are misleading. Server-less means there is no need to install a separate server to work with SQLite so you can connect directly with the database. Data is retrieved from a database system using the SQL language. db This will create a new SQLite database called mydatabase. dat", the file extension is "dat". Summary: in this tutorial, we will introduce you to the most commonly used SQLite commands of the sqlite3 command line program. Like an Access database file, you have to have the database file in a network shared folder. When I try to open the database ,this software just told me "Invalid file format" I wonder why there is no choice to inuput the password to access the database. Python Database. SQL files" in any way? If they are MySQL backup files (written as text containing MySQL compatible SQL commands) then they'll be useless w. When you re-open it, the information is still there with no explicit save from the user needed. Now this goes on for like 2-3 hours, without command prompt returning. Configuration. Just follow the steps given below. SQLite is an open source. Path, or py. This Python 3 tutorial covers how to read CSV data in from a file and then use it in Python. You will find hundreds of SQL tutorials online detailing how to write insane SQL analysis queries, how to run complex machine learning algorithms on petabytes of training data, and how to build statistical models on thousands of rows in a database. In a sense, the database manager is similar to a text editor when working with text files. In-Memory Databases. SQLITE_EXTERN char *sqlite3_temp_directory; If this global variable is made to point to a string which is the name of a folder (a. Her programs did a lot of file manipulation, and so she had to do a lot of coding of filenames. Open Visual Studio and create a C# Console Application. This Python 3 tutorial covers how to read CSV data in from a file and then use it in Python. Usually, a cursor in SQL and databases is a control structure to traverse over the records in a database. Python has a built-in function open() to open a file. 0 also exposes the unique features of SQLite. Furthermore, SQLite works on all common operating systems and is compatible to 32bit and 64bit machines. To create a database, first, you have to create a Connection object that represents the database using the connect() function of the. SQLite Download, Installation and Getting started : SQLite does not have a separate server process like most other SQL databases. SQLite Expert is a powerful tool designed to simplify the development of SQLite3 databases. directory), then all temporary files created by SQLite when using a built-in VFS will be placed in that directory. The actual zip file with the driver is at. sqlite file in there. Now create a Python script read_excel. If you’re not using an autoincrement (primary key) field in your database table, importing CSV file data into a SQLite database is straightforward, though you may have to do some work to clean up your data first. We need to be very careful while writing data into the file as it overwrites the content present inside the file that you are writing, and all the previous data will be erased. Importing a. Once we have a Connection object associated with the database, we can create a Cursor object. dat", the file extension is "dat". CSV literally stands for comma separated variable, where the comma is what is known as a "delimiter. You can use the sqlite3 program as a quick and easy way to access SQLite databases directly. pysqlite is an interface to the SQLite 3. So let's start to implement it. SQLite Expert: The expert way to SQLite. Connecting SQLite to the Database. You you can use the MySQL for Python package: [code] #!/usr/bin/python # -*- coding: utf-8 -*- # Download it at http://sourceforge. Welcome to an SQLite mini-series! SQLite, as the name suggests, is a lite version of an SQL database. The file name is incorrectly capitalized in the title of this article due to technical limitations in the software which powers the Knowledge Base. NOTE: If you currently have a blank or existing document open in Word, press “Ctrl +O” (that’s a capital letter “O”, not a zero) to access the “Open” screen or click the “File” tab and then click “Open” in the list of items on the left side of the backstage screen. Bottle is a fast, simple and lightweight WSGI micro web-framework for Python. Connecting to an SQLite database. Furthermore, SQLite works on all common operating systems and is compatible to 32bit and 64bit machines. Change the file type to ‘All Files’ and open the file 5. The Official home of the DB Browser for SQLite. PHP SQLite: Connect to SQLite using PDO (PHP Data Objects) PDO (PHP Data Objects) abstracts database access and enables you to create code that can handle different types of databases. Summary: in this tutorial, we will introduce you to the most commonly used SQLite commands of the sqlite3 command line program. 0 pip install moviepy # used in movie file thumbnails you may open a web browser and. Click Database —> Add a database menu item to create a new SQLite database. Mozilla uses SQLite. It is widely used in applications by Apple, Adobe, Google and many others, it is ideal if you want the benifits of a real SQL database without the overhead of installing a large database application. Now, the term “open a file” can mean different things depending on the context. For URI format, the "file:" prefix is required. 更多文件操作可参考:Python 文件I/O。. If I use python for make relationship between these tables and execute "SELECT" query how can I connect these 3 tables for this task? ex: #Import the sqlite3 module import sqlite3 # Create a connection and cursor to your database conn = sqlite3. Python has an inbuilt CSV library which provides the functionality of both readings and writing the data from and to CSV files. connect) because I store data to the database using CopyLayer (a method of ogr. Before open and download SQLite DLL in your solution for connectting to sqlite database in C#, And you will learn step by step how to do this. Ok so I am more experienced in python so I have been using it to pull information from tables on a wiki page to put into a database so I can use that data in a GUI made in VB. sample section from a SOFT file and store ID_REF and value in a SQLite DB. Ubuntu Karmic with python in version 2. sqlite') c = conn. One of the database types that PDO supports is SQLite. About SQLITEDB Files. You go to your database server and import the. XAMPP is a free and open source cross-platform web server package, consisting mainly of the Apache HTTP Server, MySQL database, and interpreters for scripts written in the PHP and Perl programming languages. The implementation of SQLite is pure ANSI-C, but many of the C-language source code files are either generated or transformed by auxiliary C programs and AWK, SED, and TCL scripts prior to being incorporated into the finished SQLite library. PySqlite PySqlite is a Python binding for the SQLite light-weight database engine, which is Trac's default DatabaseBackend. 5 which means that you can create SQLite database with any current Python without downloading any additional dependencies. Python has bindings for many database systems including MySQL, Postregsql, Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server and Maria DB. Python open() 函数. As most other things in Python, the with statement is actually very simple, once you understand the problem it’s trying to solve. WARNING: Never unpickle data received from an untrusted source as this may pose some serious security risks. nginx This page has moved to:. To import a. • Java JRE or SDK is not required to support SQLite. For a SQLite database, it's a lot easier. So, if you are a developer looking to build a web application using Python, this step-by-step guide handholds to create one, without any hassles. In-Memory Databases. pysqlite is an interface to the SQLite 3. SQLite is a powerful embedded database engine that's a core storage technology in Android and iOS applications. Sometimes it means to actually open the file with Python and read from it, like with a text file. Usually, a cursor in SQL and databases is a control structure to traverse over the records in a database. Parsing a file using list comprehension In this example, we can see how to get specific lines out from a text file. date and datetime. This is just an introduction to the SQLite under python environment. With little effort, a script can be written that creates and fills an sqlite database. 0), which is the binding of the Python language to the SQLite database. sqlitedb suffix is and how to open it. This time I'm going to use Python to manage my database. We can go into the exercise files, chapter three, and you'll now see that there is a file called UK road data dot SQLite. The most common way to force an SQLite database to exist purely in memory is to open the database using the special filename ":memory:". Now create a Python script read_excel. So I edited the permissions on the file, so that the Apache process had write permissions. exe on windows) that allows the user to manually enter and execute SQL statements against an SQLite database. Note: After connecting to SQLite, We read all content of an SQLite script file stored on disk and copied it into a python string variable. SQL files?" How would you use these ". October 27, 2014 23:20 / peewee python sqlcipher sqlite / 5 comments SQLCipher, created by Zetetic, is an open-source library that provides transparent 256-bit AES encryption for your SQLite databases. If I use python for make relationship between these tables and execute "SELECT" query how can I connect these 3 tables for this task? ex: #Import the sqlite3 module import sqlite3 # Create a connection and cursor to your database conn = sqlite3. SQLite database files are commonly used as containers to transfer rich content between systems and as a long-term archival format for data. Basic usage: csvs-to-sqlite myfile. Installation The short version. SQLite conversion software works under Windows 8 / 7 / Vista / XP / 2000 / NT. With little effort, a script can be written that creates and fills an sqlite database. Summary: in this tutorial, we will show you how to create a new SQLite database from the Python program. To do this, I used the win32com module and the sqlite3 module included in Python 2. Python and SQLite As mentioned above, working with databases involves five main steps. sqlite db file onto the Database tool window. Python File write() 方法 Python File(文件) 方法 概述 write() 方法用于向文件中写入指定字符串。 在文件关闭前或缓冲区刷新前,字符串内容存储在缓冲区中,这时你在文件中是看不到写入的内容的。. Step 1: Select a new project Open your Visual Studio and select new project and in Visual C# select "Windows Forms Application" and provide the name as Sqlite and click on OK. Download Udemy Python tutorial Full with Direct Download Links. Is there a way to specify the SQLite database that LocalStorage. Connecting SQLite to the Database. Insert file, image, video, or a song as a blob data into SQLite table and Fetch the file, image, video, song stored as BLOB from SQLite table using Python. In the last tutorial, I set up an SQLite database, and performed a few basic operations on it using the SQLite shell. If you find that an application on your PC does try to open the MP3 file but it's the wrong application or if you would rather have another installed program open MP3 files, see our How to Change the Default Program for a Specific File Extension guide for making that change in Windows. Work with ZIP archives. For several years, many heroes from the Plone and Zope communities have met around the world at sprints and conferences and have worked hard to get Plone fit for Python 3. No registration for start, No DownLoad, No Install. The problem is the connection string you built isn't a connection string. Additionally, it's possible to specify a SQLite-WAL-file, in case you use Write-Ahead logging. convert to json to column based sqlite. CSV literally stands for comma separated variable, where the comma is what is known as a "delimiter. Then, if the database is small enough, you can view the entire contents with: sqlite>. Run a Python Script as a File Generally programmers write stand alone scripts, that are independent to live environments. OperationalError: no such table: Airports. In a sense, the database browser is similar to a text editor when working with text files. In such case, open dbdimp. Aes Image Encryption Python. As most other things in Python, the with statement is actually very simple, once you understand the problem it’s trying to solve. Python Tkinter Introduction. SQLite CSV FAQ: How do I import a CSV file into a SQLite database table?. Which can be generated if: the database file name is wrong due, for example, to the case: linux is case sensitive, Mac OS no (at least not by default) the database file or the parent directory is read-only, so you have to change the permissions the table does not exists. Now create a Python script read_excel. In this example, we first create a Connection object that opens the SQLite database. Conversion for types beyond those supported by default is enabled in the database connection using the detect_types flag. In the previous tutorials, we've covered creating a database and populating one, now we need to learn how to read from the database. import TXT file. To query data in an SQLite database from Python, you use these steps: First, establish a connection to the the SQLite database by creating a Connection object. It is almost fully compliant with the Python database API version 2. Python has a built-in function open() to open a file. SQLite is often the technology of choice for small applications, particularly those of embedded systems and devices like phones and tablets, smart appliances, and instruments. In this video We will see How to Install SQLite3 on Windows 10. Python sqlite3 module APIs. SQLite is built into Python but is only built for access by a single connection at a time. The quickest, easiest, and most effective way to convert a DOCX file is to just open it in one of the word processor programs mentioned above and then save it to your computer as the file format you'd like it to be in. The APSW is designed to mimic the native SQLite C, therefore, whatever you can do in SQLite C API, you can do it also from Python. The real world uses of Pickling and Unpickling are widespread as they allow you to easily send data from one server to another, and store it in a file or database. In this example, we first create a Connection object that opens the SQLite database. It helps Windows select the right program to open the file. Installing Db Browser Setting it Up Opening a database file Running a queuing looking at the tables How to open a database file in DB browser SQLite in MAC EasyTech. SQLite Vulnerability Permits iOS Hack: Report. For example, do not append data into an existing table or create a table in the database while another user is appending data into an existing table or creating a table in the database. One of the database types that PDO supports is SQLite. SQLite is a open-source SQL server. SQLite is a self-contained, file-based, and fully open-source RDBMS known for its portability, reliability, and strong performance even in low-memory environments. The most common way to force an SQLite database to exist purely in memory is to open the database using the special filename ":memory:". In such case, open dbdimp. We use the function sqlite3. html 2019-08-09 19:08:17 -0500. Short answer: your correct doesn't work. And it is in a loop, so it adds every time another list in the file. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: